CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
Various diseases traditionally treated by herbal medicines. It was considered that the best ones grow on the island of Crete, therefore, the Romans often sent gatherers of herbs. In addition, in Rome, as in Greece, the medicinal plants were grown in special gardens. The Romans were engaged in gardening with a special love, they first appeared greenhouses where the young plants were protected from cold and sun was covered by clouds through the mica window. In the poetry of the Romans continued the Greek tradition of dedication laudatory epigrams medicinal plants. Here’s how glorified garden with herbs Greek poet Luxori:
Among the gigantic buildings towering high land,
The garden is wonderful; he and the owner nice. .
Here from different seeds grow zhiznenosnymi grass;
Their healing properties the healing we are.
All here science has for Phoebus with Asclepius, clear
From here ailments any means open to you.
I believe that the garden is the sky the particle, where the rule
Gods: because herbs given to the death to win.
Descriptions of Roman gardens with medicinal plants contained in popular books — encyclopedias. Often these descriptions were accompanied by prescriptions from medical writings. This ancient tradition was continued in the middle ages and Renaissance. Great fame among his contemporaries received the poem “Garden” (lat.”Hortulus”) from the Abbot of Ranhou Walafrid Strabo (IX.), in which were described the medicinal plants grown in the monastery garden. Here is a fragment of “Salerno code of health” (XIII century) depicting the cultivation of medicinal plants at the medical school of Salerno:
Died why are people that sage cultivated virtue?
It is evident, from death in the gardens you will not find any medications.
Sage strengthens the nerves and tempers of the hands durojaiye,
And fever to expel even acute he.
You’re naked Savior, sage, and the assistant, the nature of this.
In Russia in the XVI century medical literature was represented mainly by herbalists, medical manual and “the vineyard”. This name became a household word after in 1534, was first translated from the German book “Garden of health”. Its Russian name “Cool vertograd” corresponds to the Latin “Hortus amoenus” (“the Pleasant garden”).
The inhabitants of the ancient world valued the aromas of medicinal herbs. For example, it was believed that the smell of mint is uplifting, stimulates thought and promotes lively conversation. Roman writer and historian Pliny the Elder wore on her head a wreath of fresh mint leaves. In Rome during the festive feasts such wreaths were distributed to guests, peppermint leaves rubbed the tables and rooms were sprayed with peppermint water.
Famous historical gardens for breeding plants for making poisons. This famous king of Pontus Mithridates Eupator (II—I centuries BC). He constantly took small amounts of poison to “teach” him his body, because he feared poisoning. Roman writer and historian Plutarch tells us that Tsar Attal (II century BC) was grown in his garden henbane, hellebore, Hemlock, nightshade berries and other poisonous plants, and also studied the action of their juices.
Addiction to poisons, called in modern toxicology “mithridatism” by name Mithridates Eupator, already in ancient times it was known in the Ancient near East, a representation about this phenomenon, for example, the production of lacquerware, which was famous for Ancient China. Lac was known in this country already in the XIII century BC Receive it, making incisions on the stems of the lacquer tree, which is widespread in Central China.
This tree is very poisonous, it is fresh juice causes abscesses and skin burns. Traditionally
the manufacture of varnishes has been in the East family craft and handed down from father to son: if a child gradually get used to lacquer fumes, the body becomes immune to them.
A few centuries before Mithridates, the Greek philosopher and botanist Theophrastus described a funny incident, when a seller of medicinal plants, wanting to show the public their immunity to poison, eat in front of customers a few poisonous roots. However, shepherd, who was in the crowd, disgraced the seller: he was able without any harm to eat a whole bunch of these roots. The reason was their sweet taste, attracting shepherds, who are used away from home to eat various roots. Constantly eating these plants in small quantities, they are immune to poison.